Mediterr J Rheumatol 2017;28(2):80-5
Expression levels of the microRNA maturing microprocessor complex components; Drosha, Dicer, and DGCR8 in PBMCs from ankylosing spondylitis patients
Authors Information

1: Rheumatology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2: Immunology Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences (International Campus), Yazd, Iran
  1. Meda F, Folci M, Baccarelli A, Selmi C. The epigenetics of autoimmunity. Cell Mol Immunol 2011;8:226-36.
  2. Winter J, Jung S, Keller S, Gregory R I, Diederichs S. Many roads to maturity: microRNA biogenesis pathways and their regulation. Nat Cell Biol 2009;11:228-34.
  3. Lee Y, Kim M, Han J, Yeom K H, Lee S, Baek S  H, et al. MicroRNA genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II. EMBO J 2004;23:4051-60.
  4. Gregory R I, Chendrimada T P, Shiekhattar R. MicroRNA biogenesis: isolation and characterization of the microprocessor complex. Methods Mol Biol 2006;342:33-47.
  5. Gregory R I, Yan K-P, Amuthan G, Chendrimada T, Doratotaj B, Cooch N, et al. The Microprocessor complex mediates the genesis of microRNAs. Nature 2004;432:235-40.
  6. Kim V N. MicroRNA precursors in motion: exportin-5 mediates their nuclear export. Trends Cell Biol 2004;14:156-9.
  7. Steven M M, Van Der Linden S M, Cats A. Evaluation of diagnostic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis: a comparison of the Rome, New York and modified New York criteria in patients with a positive clinical history screening test for ankylosing spondylitis. Rheumatology 1985;24:242-9.
  8. Brown M A. Genetics and the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2009;21:318-23.
  9. Jamshidi A R, Shahlaee A, Farhadi E, Fallahi S, Nicknam M H, Bidad K, et al. Clinical characteristics and medical management of Iranian patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Mod Rheumatol 2013;24:499-504.
  10. Lau C S, Burgos-Vargas R, Louthrenoo W, Mok M Y, Wordsworth P, Zeng Q Y. Features of spondyloarthritis around the world. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1998;24:753-70.
  11. Reveille J D. Recent studies on the genetic basis of ankylosing spondylitis. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2009;11:340-8.
  12. Gunal E K, Sarvan F O, Kamali S, Gul A, Inanc M, Carin M, et al. Low frequency of HLA-B27 in ankylosing spondylitis patients from Turkey. Joint Bone Spine 2008;75:299-302.
  13. Alaez C, Gazit E, Ibarrola B, Yaron M, Livneh A, Avishai O, et al. Distribution of HLA-B27 subtypes in ankylosing spondylitis in an Israeli population. Arch Med Res 2007;38:452-5.
  14. Nicknam M H, Mahmoudi M, Amirzargar A A, Hakemi M G, Khosravi F, Jamshidi A R, et al. Determination of HLA-B27 subtypes in Iranian patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2008;7:19-24.
  15. Fallahi S, Mahmoudi M, Nicknam M H, Gharibdoost F, Farhadi E, Saei A, et al. Effect of HLA-B* 27 and its Subtypes on Clinical Manifestations and Severity of Ankylosing Spondylitis in Iranian patients. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2013;12:321.
  16. Mahmoudi M, Aslani S, Nicknam M H, Karami J, Jamshidi A R. New insights toward the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis; genetic variations and epigenetic modifications. Mod Rheumatol 2016:1-12.
  17. Lai N S, Yu H C, Chen H C, Yu C L, Huang H B, Lu M C. Aberrant expression of microRNAs in T cells from patients with ankylosing spondylitis contributes to the immunopathogenesis. J Clin Exp Immunol 2013;173:47-57.
  18. Huang J, Song G, Yin Z, Luo X, Ye Z. Elevated miR-29a expression is not correlated with disease activity index in PBMCs of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Mod Rheumatol 2014;24:331-4.
  19. Moll J, Wright V. New York clinical criteria for ankylosing spondylitis. A statistical evaluation. Ann Rheum Dis 1973;32:354.
  20. Garrett S, Jenkinson T, Kennedy L G, Whitelock H, Gaisford P, Calin A. A new approach to defining disease status in ankylosing spondylitis: the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index. J Rheumatol 1994;21:2286-91.
  21. Bidad K, Fallahi S, Mahmoudi M, Jamshidi A, Farhadi E, Meysamie A, et al. Evaluation of the Iranian versions of the bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), the bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI) and the patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Rheumatol Int 2012;32:3613-8.
  22. Calin A, Garrett S, Whitelock H, Kennedy L, O'hea J, Mallorie P, et al. A new approach to defining functional ability in ankylosing spondylitis: the development of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index. J Rheumatol 1994;21:2281-5.
  23. Sand M, Gambichler T, Skrygan M, Sand D, Scola N, Altmeyer P, et al. Expression levels of the microRNA processing enzymes Drosha and dicer in epithelial skin cancer. Cancer Invest 2010;28:649-53.
  24. Sand M, Skrygan M, Georgas D, Arenz C, Gambichler T, Sand D, et al. Expression levels of the microRNA maturing microprocessor complex component DGCR8 and the RNA‐induced silencing complex (RISC) components argonaute‐1, argonaute‐2, PACT, TARBP1, and TARBP2 in epithelial skin cancer. Mol Carcinog 2012;51:916-22.
  25. Ye J, Coulouris G, Zaretskaya I, Cutcutache I, Rozen S, Madden T L. Primer-BLAST: a tool to design target-specific primers for polymerase chain reaction. BMC Bioinformatics 2012;13:134.
  26. Schmittgen T D, Livak K J. Analyzing real-time PCR data by the comparative CT method. Nat Protoc 2008;3:1101-8.
  27. Aslani S, Mahmoudi M, Karami J, Jamshidi A R, Malekshahi Z, Nicknam M H. Epigenetic alterations underlying autoimmune diseases. Autoimmunity 2016:1-15.
  28. Tokumaru S, Suzuki M, Yamada H, Nagino M, Takahashi T. let-7 regulates Dicer expression and constitutes a negative feedback loop. Carcinogenesis 2008;29:2073-7.
  29. Daoussis D, Andonopoulos A P, Editors. The emerging role of Dickkopf-1 in bone biology: is it the main switch controlling bone and joint remodeling? Semin Arthritis Rheum Vol. 41 No. 2. WB Saunders, 2011.
  30. Xu H Y, Wang Z Y, Chen J F, Wang T Y, Wang L L, Tang L L, et al. Association between Ankylosing Spondylitis and the miR-146a and miR-499 Polymorphisms. PLoS One 2015;10:e0122055.
  31. Qian B P, Ji Ml, Qiu Y, Wang B, Yu Y, Shi W, et al. Identification of Serum miR-146a and miR-155 as Novel Noninvasive Complementary Biomarkers for Ankylosing Spondylitis. Spine 2016;41:735-42.
  32. Raisch J, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Nguyen H T T. Role of microRNAs in the immune system, inflammation and cancer. World J Gastroenterol 2013;19:2985-96.
  33. Jafari N, Dogaheh H P, Bohlooli S, Oyong G G, Shirzad Z, Alibeiki F, et al. Expression levels of microRNA machinery components Drosha, Dicer and DGCR8 in human (AGS, HepG2, and KEYSE-30) cancer cell lines. Int J Clin Exp Med 2013;6:269.
  34. Papachristou D J, Korpetinou A, Giannopoulou E, Antonacopoulou A G, Papadaki H, Grivas P, et al. Expression of the ribonucleases Drosha, Dicer, and Ago2 in colorectal carcinomas. Virchows Arch 2011;459:431-40.
  35. Rahimi G, Jafari N, Khodabakhsh M, Shirzad Z, Dogaheh H P. Upregulation of microRNA processing enzymes Drosha and Dicer in gestational diabetes mellitus. Gynecol Endocrinol 2015;31:156-9.
  36. Jafari N, Shaghaghi H, Mahmoodi D, Shirzad Z, Alibeiki F, Bohlooli S, et al. Overexpression of microRNA biogenesis machinery: Drosha, DGCR8 and Dicer in multiple sclerosis patients. J Clin Neurosci 2015;22:200-3.